Daily Marauder



Taking a stance on Flipboard vs. The Daily, two iPad applications which supply news content to their audiences, highlights the friction between old media and new and distinguishes the ways two companies are bringing information to users. Flipboard is a social magazine launched in July 2010 by Mike McCue and Evan Doll touted by Apple as iPad App of the Year and one of TIME’s top 50 innovations of 2010. The Daily launched in February 2011 by News Corp., designed to be the first iPad-only newspaper.


To fully discuss the future of news, I’ve brought together a group of folks with different perspectives for the weigh-in. Below are the three main contributors. Along with these, there are several other powerful perspectives weaved in along the way.


Ashmi Dang: Digital Marketing Consultant specializing in entertainment

Caroline Giegerich: Editor of Daily Marauder, Master of whimsy

David Hayes: Digital marketer in theatrical at a studio and curator of finely wrought bytes at Stilllifewithinternet.com


The Secret Sauce



“Flipboard is the “platformifiication” of publishing, open to anyone who wants to publish through it. The breadth of content available trumps the quality of individual pieces of content, with the experience being different for everyone that uses it. The Daily is “magazines as medium”, and is a literal interpretation of what the future of magazines can be – a multi-dimensional interpretation of a formerly two-dimensional edited, curated document.” Ian Schafer, CEO, Deep Focus



Flipboard allows me to be the secret sauce by giving me control over what I read. My usage is mostly concentrated on my Twitter feeds. Pulling them into Flipboard offers me a way of stepping out of the live steam to do some social listening, as well as responding and ultimately boosting my Influence Score by having dialogue with what I’ve read. An application that simplifies the process of doing all that, through a visually pleasing and unique UI, helps feed my social-networking-news-consuming-junkie needs.


For a newspaper, the biggest draw is the editorial content. The challenge for The Daily is convincing consumers that their version of the news is worth paying for. Right now, there are five categories, one being Sports which I don’t read. Of the remaining four, I’m already able to find most through my existing news channels, and others that are of importance to me are simply not covered. The value proposition and product differentiation don’t exist in terms of my needs with The Daily.



In the days of the newspaper, the news editor was king, culling together a meticulously curated product from the ranks of the professional journalist. In the new era of social media, the control of content has shifted from ‘professional’ to everyone. Twitter, on the short form, and blogs on the long form have empowered the masses to become an army of content creators. Flipboard simply aggregates this new army of content creators to create a new breed of broadsheet. If my broadsheet could speak to me, what would she say? Well, she would most likely say something different minute by minute as the news developed. Flipboard fulfills this promise creating a lean back experience of news that has been curated by both the reader and their amalgamation of friends and contacts.


The Daily, on the other hand, is a traditional newspaper that has been re-packaged simply for an iPad product. One issue is delivered and served with the sections you’ve come to expect from a traditional newspaper. No personalization. No curation of the masses. This difference evokes the glaring friction traditional media has been battling with for so long: ceding control. Content creators no longer require journalism school or fancy degrees. Recognizing this is the secret sauce of Flipboard. Ignoring it is the Achilles Heel of The Daily.



While The Daily is attempting to recreate the experience of reading a newspaper for lean back devices, Flipboard’s aim feels more ambitious: Create a “personalized social magazine.”


Quality as News Source



Flipboard is a platform driven by my work in curating the best content for me and also offers some pretty great optional channels of aggregated content. Ultimately, I’m in charge and it comes down to my willingness to ensure that I’m reading quality information.


With The Daily, Caroline McCarthy, of CNET.com/CBS, made an excellent point while moderating a Social Media Week panel in NYC, “For The Daily to really establish itself as a long lasting fixture, its going to have to start breaking news and getting that exclusive Steve Jobs interview that Time would otherwise be getting.” Its uniqueness in this area is most critical to its success and right now, it’s just not there for me.



Here Flipboard could potentially fall flat much like Twitter. If not carefully managed, a Twitter feed can become a garbage can of ridiculous comments. Flipboard allows the user to pick the inputs from Flavorpill to the NY Times. If a user selects only entertainment outlets, the experience will be limited to that information removing the possibility that the budding protests in the Middle East will make their way through. In this way, Flipboard’s ability to present information is only as good as the human programming it.


On the flip, The Daily is collected and published in one edition and experienced as such by all users.   Flipboard is Pandora. If you decide at some point that you no longer like the blues, some energy is required to remix. The Daily is radio. I worked in radio. We DJ’s lie to you all the time about playing requests. Doesn’t happen.



The Daily is a better way to get the day’s news for the target customer, the type of person who walks by his front door and misses that familiar stroll onto the lawn to pick up the morning paper. The Daily is a newspaper dressed up to look like a spaceship but a newspaper nonetheless.


Flipboard is not a very good way to get the day’s news. Why? Flipboard is the single-most pleasurable experience I’ve encountered on a touch-screen device for…browsing, but it is not a very good app for scanning. Flipboard is both an extremely pleasurable and tiresome experience. It’s a “fifteen minute app,” both in fame and in the maximum amount of time I can stand using it.


Business Model

Flipboard: free. The Daily: $.99 per issue of $39.99 per year



Being free, Flipboard is contributing to their future success. Adoption and usage provide data necessary to understand what’s working and what’s not. Once they figure this out, they have the opportunity to stake a claim in what becomes the norm furthering investment and continued growth. I’d personally like to see an algorithm that pushes the most discussed topics in my feed’s front and center.


As a subscription-based service, The Daily is going to have to significantly set itself apart from its free competitors. More than ever, we are curating our own news. At a Social Media Week panel, Adam Ostrow, Editor-in-Chief of Mashable said, “News Corp has been one of the few companies that’s been successful at charging for content through the Wall Street Journal, and while I think its a bit of a different audience obviously, people will pay for information that moves markets.”



In typical Murdoch fashion, the price is immediate even before the quality of the content has been proved out. This is called ego and the central differentiating feature again between old media and the start-up community. Start-ups focus on the user experience almost with little to no focus on how they will prove out revenue-positive results. Traditional media focuses on how to glean immediate profits before asking consumers if they like the experience. There must be some middle ground here.



If Murdoch succeeds, he’ll have proven that people willpay for the news, even if that news is so bland that it appears to have been generated by content bots. People will pay for information online and that content doesn’t have to be Wikileaks caliber. This is because many people don’t pay for the information itself, but the experience of consuming the information. (i.e. USA Today) For a very specific, very large and very deep-pocketed user base, the experience of reading a newspaper in some version of the old way is worth paying for.


Flipboard has gone the free route and faces that long road of gaining enough users to sell ads against eyeballs. I would have charged for Flipboard. It’s the exact type of novelty I’d pay for just as I paid for FLUD and Pulse. At its core, Flipboard isn’t a magazine. It’s a feed reader, an aggregator, be they social (Facebook), Flipboard-endorsed (FlipTech) or self-curated content. This is no different from Pulse, FLUD, Feedly, Google Reader, etc. Is Flipboard one of the more unique aggregators? Certainly. Can you make real money at aggregation? Ask Google News or Tumblr. It’s tough. Content creators will give you their feeds for free but the second you try to make money off them? Watch out.



Traditional Media vs. New Media

“I’ll bet on ‘produced’ content any day. Right now, everybody aggregates the news, but few are producing. This is where The Daily stands out. It’s early, everybody is learning, but Murdoch took the right approach…conceived from the users point of view, not trying to squeeze a newspaper onto a 9 inch screen.” Rishi Malhotra, Managing Partner 212MEDIA, a NYC-based media incubator.



Flipboard’s approach is acknowledging consumer’s changing behaviors with the widespread adoption of both the iPad and social networking. The Daily has delivered an electronic newspaper in a medium that begs for innovation. Advantage, Flipboard. It is looking toward the future, not reinventing the past.



Flipboard represents a revolutionary way to consume news. The simplicity of the thinking is this: extend the aggregation of news outside professional editors and customize that curation by user. The end links could be the same. For example, my friend may post a link to WSJ which would be curated through Flipboard. Same as reading the WSJ? No. In this case, the WSJ was hand-selected by my friend for some reason, elevating its status like a highlighter elevates text. No one wants to think his or her job is not specialized. Flipboard makes us all editors which empowers us all. The Daily continues with the control traditional media clings to. Control the message. Control the power. Too bad the power already ceded to the community a long time ago. Democracy isn’t just for Egypt any more kids. The news is now ours to create. Move over Wolf Blitzer…



From its old school subscription model to its print style ads to its broad sheet page layout, The Daily is 100% about making its users feel comfortable performing an activity that doesn’t really exist in the modern world: Reading – not scanning – yesterday’s news. This is precisely why Big Media wins in this case. They get their customer’s true needs and wants and are positioning themselves for a specific group of people with a high willingness to pay. That group just might be those 76MM Baby Boomers approaching retirement and ready to unwrap their next iPad.


The startup loses. Flipboard will basically appeal to the exact type of person who understands that it would be ridiculous to pay for yesterday’s news because they read yesterday’s news yesterday in real-time, as it happened. This is the same type of person who has enough feeds to demand a feed reader and needs that reader to be built for scanning and not browsing.






Google users may not turn up any News Corp. articles in their searches after the company launches its paid content strategy, according to comments made by Rupert Murdoch in a Sky News interview. Murdoch complained that search engine readers hold little value for print sites’ advertisers and again held up his Wall St. Journal site as an example of what the model would look like. (Only the first paragraph of news stories would come up in search engines.) “There’s not enough advertising in the world to make all the websites profitable. We’d rather have fewer people coming to our websites but paying,” said Mr. Murdoch.

Techcrunch reported that 25% of WSJ.com’s traffic comes from Google. That’s, in essence, what we’re talking about here: 25%. It’s a bit like Kraft taking all of it’s products off of supermarket shelves. And considering that WSJ has a deal with Google to allow users to read full article content when they search through the engine, it seems a bit like an about-face no?

In a continued housecleaning at Walt Disney Co., studio distribution veteran Mark Zoradi is leaving after 29 years. The departure of Zoradi, president of Disney’s motion pictures group, follows the ousting of his former boss, Disney Studios Chairman Dick Cook, in September and Miramax Films President Daniel Battsek late last month. (LA Times 11/10)

LinkedIn and Twitter have linked up. Starting immediately, users of LinkedIn and Twitter can cross-file to each other’s services, by checking a box on either Twitter or LinkedIn. (Reuters11/10)

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Remember when Twitter was just a little pipsqueek, with less than 10 million monthly unique visitors to its site worldwide? That was back in February, 2009. Fast-forward to April, and Twitter’s U.S. visitors alone reached 17 million. Now comScore has released its worldwide numbers and it estimates Twitter’s global unique visitors in April, 2009 was a whopping 32 million, up from 19 million in March, 2009. (http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/05/20/twitter-surges-past-digg-linkedin-and-nytimescom-with-32-million-global-visitors/ 5/20)


YouTube, a site that was once notorious for pirated content and user-generated videos that were practically useless to brands, has made great strides in the last few years as it looks to appeal to its growing number of advertisers and content partners. Today the site is adding a new feature that makes the platform even more useful, adding Google’s powerful (and very popular) Analytics reporting to YouTube brand channels, adding some credence to YouTube’s claim that it’s the “world’s largest focus group”. (http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/05/20/start-tracking-youtube-brings-google-analytics-to-brand-channels/ 5/20)


Video sites Hulu and YouTube are said to be preparing an expansion in Britain. Hulu, backed by News Corp., NBC Universal and Disney, could launch in the U.K. by this September, while Google’s YouTube is reportedly close to making deals over full-length U.K. television shows. (Iwantmedia 5/21, http://www.webpronews.com/topnews/2009/05/20/reports-hulu-youtube-set-to-make-headway-in-the-uk 5/20)

The future of the weekly city paper is the daily blog. Hints of this future can already be seen at Village Voice Media, which owns and operates 15 of the top weeklies in the country, including the Village Voice, SF Weekly, and LA Weekly. Bill Jensen, the director of new media who oversees all the Village Voice Media sites tells me that 40 percent of pageviews comes from the blogs on the sites, up from 20 percent a year ago. Some of the more popular ones include columnist Michael Musto’s blog, Nikki Finke’s Deadline Holywood Daily, and Topless Robot. (http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/05/20/village-voice-media-sites-now-get-40-percent-of-traffic-from-blogs-planning-local-ad-network/ 5/20)

Village Voice

Google has considered buying a newspaper or using its charitable arm to support news businesses seeking non-profit status, but is now unlikely to pursue either option. Instead, says CEO Eric Schmidt, Google will work with publishers to make their Web sites “work better.” (Iwantmedia 5/21, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/2252e92c-4569-11de-b6c8-00144feabdc0.html 5/20)

Microsoft is planning to introduce a brand new search engine next week at the D: All Things Digital conference as it scrambles to try and regain market share in search advertising from Google, per the WSJ. Code-named “Kumo” (“cloud” or “spider” in Japanese,) the search engine is designed to streamline searches for products or subjects by grouping them into categories. (Cynopsis 5/21)

E!, the entertainment news channel, plans to run tweets from celebrities’ Twitter feeds in the news crawl at the bottom of the screen during its programming. In addition, the Comcast-owned network will feature a “Celebri-Tweet” widget on the home page of its Web site. (Iwantmedia 5/21, http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/233167-E_Seeking_Celebrity_Tweeters.php 5/20)

Several media companies are appealing the April 17 verdict in the trial of The Pirate Bay movie and music piracy site — even though they won the case. Instead of $3.5 million, the companies want $13 million. They claim the lower fine doesn’t fully cover the scope of the damages. (Iwantmedia 5/21, http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2009/05/big-content-appeals-pirate-bay-casedamages-were-too-low.ars 5/20)

Yahoo is looking to buy companies that will allow it to become a bigger player in social networking, according to CTO Ari Balogh. “It’s a good time to be buying now,” he says, declining to give specific names. “I can guarantee you there will be some acquisitions.” (Iwantmedia 5/21, http://www.reuters.com/article/GlobalTechnology09/idUSTRE54J68D20090520 5/20)

Overall Usage Number of Users 2+ (in 000’s) – Monthly Reach
1Q09       4Q08        1Q08     % Diff Yr to Yr
Watching TV in the home        284,574   285,313   281,106       1.2%
Watching Timeshifted TV          79,533    73,934     57,934      37.3%
Using the Internet                 163,110   161,525  158,002        3.2%
Watching Video on Internet     131,102   123,195  115,970      13.0%
Using a Mobile Phone              230,436   228,920  219,619       4.9%
Mobile Subscribers Watching
Video on a Mobile Phone            13,419   11,198     8,817      52.2%
Source: The Nielsen Company

Monthly Time Spent in Hours: Minutes Per User 2+
1Q09    4Q08   1Q08   % Diff Yr to Yr  Absolute Diff Yr to Yr
(1Q09 to 1Q08)   (1Q09 to 1Q08)
Watching TV in the home          153:27  151:03  150:38        1.9%                 2:49
Watching Timeshifted TV              8:13     7:11     5:52       40.1%                 2:21
Using the Internet                     29:15    27:04   27:57        4.6%                 1:17
Watching Video on Internet          3:00      2:53     1:57       53.2%                 1:02
Mobile Subscribers Watching
Video on a Mobile Phone               3:37    3:42      n/a          n/a                    n/a
Source: The Nielsen Company

Video Audience Composition – Age  1Q 2009

K2-11 T12-17 A18-24 A25-34 A35-44 A45-54 A55-64 A65+
On TV                 10%     6%       7%     13%     14%     17%    15%   18%
On the Internet     8%      8%       7%     15%     18%     22%   15%     7%
On Mobile Phones  n/a    18%      10%     34%     20%     11%     6%     1%
Source: The Nielsen Company

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Comcast and the National Football League are reportedly close to a deal that would bring the league’s NFL Network to one of the MSO’s more widely distributed programming tiers. If a deal comes to fruition, it will likely help the NFL network expand its reach. The Wall Street Journal (5/19)

Comcast NFL

Fox Television, the proud home of The Simpsons and Family Guy, is looking for another cartoon franchise to add to its roster. But rather than searching in Hollywood, it is crowdsourcing cartoon ideas on the Web. In a contest hosted on animation site Aniboom, professional and amateur animators alike will be able to submit a two- to four-minute animated video online for a chance at cash prizes and a shot at producing a full-length pilot for TV. (http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/05/18/fox-television-tries-to-crowdsource-cartoons-through-aniboom/ 5/18)

Family Guy Aniboom

MTV tackles a sensitive and controversial subject in its new series, 16 & Pregnant opening June 11 at 10p with six one-hour episodes. The intimate series will follow the lives of pregnant teenagers as they become young parents while juggling relationships, finances, school and other new responsibilities. (Cynopsis 5/19)

Drew Carey, host of The Price Is Right on CBS, made a two-year first-look production agreement with CBS Television Studios involving scripted and non-scripted shows, reports THR. (Cynopsis 5/19)

Drew Carey

News Corp.’s Fox television is unveiling a new schedule aiming to lure more prime-time viewers next season. Two new shows, “Human Target” and “Sons of Tucson,” will begin airing in 2010 to benefit from the added viewers who tune in when the top-rated “American Idol” returns. (Iwantmedia 5/19, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=a_85epjtNTNo 5/18)

Time Warner is closing on its acquisition of a 31% interest in Central European Media Enterprises (CME), the Bermuda-based broadcaster founded by cosmetics billionaire Ronald Lauder. CME operates TV channels in countries including Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Romania. (Iwantmedia 5/19, http://finance.yahoo.com/news/Time-Warner-investment-in-CME-apf-15277989.html 5/18)

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Amazon.com is unveiling a program that pays bloggers for Kindle e-reader subscriptions to their posts. Amazon will pay registered bloggers 30% of its subscription fee. At a $2 per month price point, a blogger could make $50,000 per year with just 7,000 annual subscribers. (Iwantmedia 5/14,http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2009/05/14/amazon-to-pay-bloggers-for-subscriptions 5/14)

Very nice.  Thank you Amazon.  Just published Daily Marauder.  The format is a bit wonky but what the hell, still cool none the less.  Love that Amazon even generates a Kindle preview so that you can see what your blog looks like on the device.  FYI, Newspaper companies, speak to Kindle.  They have it.

Kindle blogs

Actor Ashton Kutcher, in a quest to fulfill his promise to “ding-dong-ditch” Ted Turner‘s house after winning a race to attract 1 million followers on Twitter, unfurled a giant banner with his microblogging account’s name over the CNN logo on the Time Warner network’s building in Atlanta. (Iwantmedia 5/14,http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/05/14/cnn.kutcher.prank/index.html 5/14)

CNN kutcher

Google’s new search products demonstrate the company’s continued ability to innovate, says Piper Jaffray analyst Gene Munster. The Internet giant will maintain its search leadership “for the foreseeable future.” Google’s position is “essentially insurmountable.” (Iwantmedia 5/14,http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2009/05/13/is-google-insurmountable 5/13)

Just weeks after a Swedish court found the four men behind the Pirate Bay Web site guilty of promoting copyright infringement, illegal file-sharing of music is as rampant as ever, says the U.K.’s PRS for Music. “The Pirate Bay trial has done nothing to discourage file sharing.” (Iwantmedia 5/14,http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/f6fe991c-3fd0-11de-9ced-00144feabdc0.html 5/14)

U.S. social network advertising spending will fall 3% to $1.14 billion in 2009, from $1.18 billion in 2008, according to a forecast by eMarketer. MySpace is described as “the major problem.” While it has been cash cow for News Corp., “the brand has lost its shine.” (Iwantmedia 5/14,http://www.adotas.com/2009/05/myspace-drags-down-social-network-ad-spend 5/14)


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TV viewers will see more of Al Roker on weekday mornings as he signed on to host a new program for The Weather Channel called Wake Up With Al. The 60m program, with TWC’s Stephanie Abrams as co-host, will begin each weekday at 6a starting this summer. Wake Up With Al will offer an in-depth look at the day’s weather and Roker will appear in the studio, chatting with guests and viewers as well as in the field, reporting on weather where it happens. (Cynopsis 4/30)


NBC picked up another season of The Celebrity Apprentice slated for Spring 2010 from Mark Burnett Productions in association with Trump Productions LLC. Currently, this season The Celebrity Apprentice is averaging a 3.5/9 among A18-49 with 8.6 million overall viewers. (Cynopsis 4/30)


Viacom says its first-quarter profit fell 34%, hurt by falling advertising and entertainment revenue. But CEO Philippe Dauman is pointing to signs of an ad turnaround, a critical factor for the company’s cable assets. “Over the past few weeks we have seen the ad market stabilize.” (Iwantmedia 4/30, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090430/ap_on_bi_ge/us_earns_viacom 4/30)

Sumner Redstone says he has no plans to step down anytime soon or give up his controlling positions in CBS or Viacom. “I have no intention of dying.” Also, newspapers are one business “I’d never be in.” (Iwantmedia 4/30, http://www.reuters.com/article/industryNews/idUSTRE53S9C520090429 4/29)

Peter Chernin is keeping his cards close to his vest about his post-News Corp. plans, but dismisses talk that he is being wooed by Viacom. “Nothing, no conversations,” says News Corp.’s president and COO. (Iwantmedia 4/30, http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2009/04/panel.html 4/29)

Time Warner Cable during the first quarter beat analysts’ expectations by adding 36,000 basic-video subscribers, 121,000 digital-video customers, 225,000 high-speed Internet subscribers and 166,000 phone lines. The country’s second-largest cable provider reported that revenue was up 5%, to $4.4 billion, but net profit fell to $164 million. The Wall Street Journal/Dow Jones Newswires (4/30) , OneTRAK (4/29) , Reuters (4/29)

Powered by its “Waking the Baby Mammoth” special, National Geographic Channel recorded its best April performance during prime time. From March 30 to April 26, the network averaged 445,000 total viewers as well as a 0.28 rating in the 25-to-54 demographic group, the latter of which was a 17% gain. Multichannel News (4/29)

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As Hulu continues its spectacular rise (it is the No. 3 video site in the U.S. and is closing in on No. 2), it just got major buy-in from yet another major media company. Disney is now an investor, joining News Corp and NBC (along with private equity firm Providence Equity Partners). Each of the three media companies now reportedly own 27 percent of Hulu. (http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/04/30/disney-buys-into-hulu-youtube-should-be-worried/ 4/30)


A future version of iTunes, which was included in the beta version of an iPhone software update sent to developers, included a reference to Blu-ray playback in the “About iTunes” section, according to reports. The news indicates that Apple is preparing to make its applications and hardware compatible with Blu-ray, although the company has not released any statements to verify this speculation. InformationWeek (4/30) , Digital Trends (4/29


Time Warner CEO Jeff Bewkes says his company is working with several distributors on its TV Everywhere concept and will begin testing it sometime during the second half of the year. TV Everywhere, theoretically, will allow subscription-paying cable customers to watch their favorite shows on a number of other media platforms, including those that are mobile. Reuters (4/29)

Twitter has rolled out search functionality in a more prominent area of the site: the right nav bar.  The functionality was originally only available to select users but now has been rolled out to everyone. (http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/04/30/twitter-brings-search-to-all/ 4/30)


To build buzz for MTV‘s Justin Timberlake-produced reality show The Phone, Fanscape has launched an interactive Twitter-based game on MTV’s Twitter page. Similar to the popular kids’ game “Telephone,” Fanscape tweets MTV’s audience weekly with abstract messages, asking them to change one word and retweet the message to create progressively funnier conversations. (Cynopsis 4/30)

Google has just announced that it has become the default location provider service in Firefox, which means beginning in the latest Firefox Beta (available here) users will be able to update their location from their web browser without having to install an extra plugins or programs through Google. (http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/04/30/google-becomes-default-location-provider-for-firefox/ 4/30)


Barry Diller’s IAC/InterActiveCorp says it is in talks to buy Yahoo’s online-dating business, after posting a first-quarter loss due to advertising woes. “We would love to have Yahoo Personals,” Diller says. IAC already owns Match.com, the Web’s largest online personals service. (Iwantmedia 4/30, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124100716278968323.html 4/30)

Sony is making more of its films available for free on Crackle.com, the company’s online movie and television video site, adding “Spider-Man 2” and other titles as it looks to attract more viewers and advertisers. The latest additions specifically target younger males. (Iwantmedia 4/30, http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118002988.html?categoryid=1237&cs=1 4/29)

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